Applications of levelling in surveying

WHAT IS LEVELLING?

The art of determining relative altitudes of points on the surface of the earth of beneath the surface of earth is called LEVELLING.

For execution of Engineering Projects it is very necessary to determine elevations of different points along the alignment of proposed project.

Applications

  1. For planning and estimating project works like roads, bridges, railways, airports, water supply and waste water disposal surveying is required. 
  2. Taking rail levels existing before track renewals to finalize final rail level profile including vertical curves.Image result for surveying on rail track
  3. It is also useful in construction of roads, to calculate CUT & FILL in a road project, deciding slope on side for draining purpose.Image result for surveying on road
  4. While lying of the pipeline to ensure appropriate slope of the land that will allow smooth movement of the liquid in the transit.Image result for pipeline survey
  5. For preparing the contour map to determine the best possible route and amount of earthwork required. 

    Image result for contour map
    Contour map
  6. For preparing the engineering map showing engineering details like highways, railways, canals, dams, reservoirs, etc.

    Image result for engineering map
    Engineering map
  7. For preparing the topographical map which shows hills, rivers, forests, valleys, etc.topographical map. 

    Image result for topographical map of everest
    Topographical map of Everest mount
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